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城市无人机航线飞行间隔与调控频率综合研究

张健 王守源 赵嶷飞 卢飞

张健, 王守源, 赵嶷飞, 卢飞. 城市无人机航线飞行间隔与调控频率综合研究[J]. 交通信息与安全, 2024, 42(1): 11-18. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2024.01.002
引用本文: 张健, 王守源, 赵嶷飞, 卢飞. 城市无人机航线飞行间隔与调控频率综合研究[J]. 交通信息与安全, 2024, 42(1): 11-18. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2024.01.002
ZHANG Jian, WANG Shouyuan, ZHAO Yifei, LU Fei. Comprehensive Study on Route Flight Separation and Control Frequency of Urban UAV[J]. Journal of Transport Information and Safety, 2024, 42(1): 11-18. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2024.01.002
Citation: ZHANG Jian, WANG Shouyuan, ZHAO Yifei, LU Fei. Comprehensive Study on Route Flight Separation and Control Frequency of Urban UAV[J]. Journal of Transport Information and Safety, 2024, 42(1): 11-18. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2024.01.002

城市无人机航线飞行间隔与调控频率综合研究

doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2024.01.002
基金项目: 

国家自然科学基金项目 52272356

国家重点研发计划项目 2022YFB4300904

民航飞联网重点实验室开放基金项目 MHFLW202206

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张健(1982—),博士研究生,讲师. 研究方向:空中交通管理、无人机运行安全评估. E-mail:zhangjian@cauc.edu.cn

    通讯作者:

    赵嶷飞(1971—),博士,教授. 研究方向:空中交通管理、空域融合运行安全评估. E-mail:yfzhao@cauc.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: X949

Comprehensive Study on Route Flight Separation and Control Frequency of Urban UAV

  • 摘要: 聚焦城市无人机航线飞行,为确保运行安全,需要为无人机配备合适的飞行间隔。面向同航线纵向飞行场景,研究了考虑冲突频率与碰撞概率且符合ICAO间隔制定原则的间隔调控模型。通过研究仅考虑无人机定位误差下的碰撞风险,得到无人机纵向飞行间隔,作为后续间隔计算的基准;通过综合考虑定位误差和速度误差引发的位置不确定性,计算伴随无人机航线飞行进程的碰撞风险。加大纵向间隔会延迟突破安全目标水平的时机,但随着飞行进程的推进,碰撞风险终将突破安全目标水平。基于此,提出了无人机位置调控机制,对2架无人机位置进行定期调控,以消除速度所产生的累积误差。针对某1个指定的安全目标水平,得到了纵向间隔与位置调控频率的关系曲线,发现二者存在博弈关系,实施高频调控,需要采取更小的航线间隔;反之,则需要加大航线间隔。同时,为兼顾城市空间与位置调控能力的双重约束,提出了选取曲率最大值位置的所需飞行间隔与调控频率作为折中方案,发现安全目标水平要求越严格,所需调控频率和飞行间隔越大。实验得到在满足安全目标水平为5×10-9次/飞行小时情况下,所需调控频率为87次/h,所需纵向飞行间隔为90 m;同时在实际运行环境中,应用上述评估模型与方法可以客观选择所需间隔和调控频率。本文研究可以兼顾城市物流无人机空中运行的安全,提高城市空域利用率和派送效率。

     

  • 图  1  城市物流无人机航线飞行示意图

    Figure  1.  Urban logistics UAV route flight diagram

    图  2  无人机放行数据统计

    Figure  2.  UAV departure data statistics

    图  3  仅考虑定位误差时纵向间隔与碰撞概率关系

    Figure  3.  Relationship between longitudinal separation and collision probability under the influence of positioning error

    图  4  不同间隔取值随飞行进程碰撞风险走势

    Figure  4.  Collision risk diagram with different separation values

    图  5  不同间隔取值下碰撞概率

    Figure  5.  Collision probability at different separation

    图  6  纵向间隔与调控频率的关系曲线

    Figure  6.  Curve of the relationship between longitudinal separation and regulation frequency

    图  7  纵向间隔与调控频率博弈曲线的曲率图

    Figure  7.  Curvature diagram of game curve of longitudinal separation and control frequency

    图  8  纵向间隔与调控频率的选取

    Figure  8.  Selection of longitudinal separation and control frequency

    图  9  不同TLS下的关系曲线

    Figure  9.  Curve of the relationship based on different TLS

    表  1  无人机航迹数据格式

    Table  1.   UAV track data format

    参数 取值 参数 取值
    纬度/(°) 25.846 北向速度/(m/s) -0.019
    经度/(°) 114.919 东向速度/(m/s) -0.031
    高度/m 108.802 地向速度/(m/s) 0.006
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  无人机机型参数表

    Table  2.   UAV model parameters table

    参数 取值 参数 取值 参数 取值
    最大起飞重量/kg 37 纵向定位误差期望 0 纵向定位误差方差 1.741 2
    最大载荷/kg 12 侧向定位期望 0 侧向定位误差方差 1.575 3
    巡航速度/(m/s) 14 高度定位期望 0 高度定位误差方差 1.389 5
    几何尺寸/(m×m×m) 2.5×2.5×0.6 速度误差期望 0 速度误差方差 0.072 3
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
  • 收稿日期:  2023-08-16
  • 网络出版日期:  2024-05-31

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