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基于驾驶模拟技术的道路行车安全性研究综述

张驰 魏东东 兰富安 白皓 黄军

张驰, 魏东东, 兰富安, 白皓, 黄军. 基于驾驶模拟技术的道路行车安全性研究综述[J]. 交通信息与安全, 2022, 40(4): 1-12. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2022.04.001
引用本文: 张驰, 魏东东, 兰富安, 白皓, 黄军. 基于驾驶模拟技术的道路行车安全性研究综述[J]. 交通信息与安全, 2022, 40(4): 1-12. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2022.04.001
ZHANG Chi, WEI Dongdong, LAN Fu'an, BAI Hao, HUANG Jun. A Review on Road Driving Safety Based on Driving Simulation Technologies[J]. Journal of Transport Information and Safety, 2022, 40(4): 1-12. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2022.04.001
Citation: ZHANG Chi, WEI Dongdong, LAN Fu'an, BAI Hao, HUANG Jun. A Review on Road Driving Safety Based on Driving Simulation Technologies[J]. Journal of Transport Information and Safety, 2022, 40(4): 1-12. doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2022.04.001

基于驾驶模拟技术的道路行车安全性研究综述

doi: 10.3963/j.jssn.1674-4861.2022.04.001
基金项目: 

国家重点研发计划项目 2020YFC1512005

四川省交通运输科技项目 2019-ZL-12

四川省交通运输科技项目 2022-ZL-04

详细信息
    通讯作者:

    张驰(1981—),博士,教授. 研究方向:道路交通安全、道路数字化研究. E-mail:zhangchi@chd.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: U491

A Review on Road Driving Safety Based on Driving Simulation Technologies

  • 摘要: 对驾驶模拟技术在道路行车安全领域的研究及应用现状和存在的问题进行了分析。在广泛调研国内外相关文献的基础上,对驾驶模拟器进行了分类,并总结了国内外主要代表性科研型驾驶模拟器的发展历程,分析了典型驾驶模拟器的自由度、主要特征和应用领域。以“人-车-路-环境-事故”为主线,从不良驾驶行为特性分析、车辆主动安全技术研究、道路与交通设计、车辆驾驶环境以及道路行车事故研究5个方面,系统地梳理了驾驶模拟技术在国内外道路行车安全领域的应用研究现状、存在问题以及应用展望。在不良驾驶行为特性分析方面,重点研究了运用驾驶行为特性开展分心驾驶行为和疲劳驾驶行为的识别;在车辆主动安全技术研究方面,综述了运用驾驶行为开展车辆底盘一体化控制技术、安全辅助驾驶控制技术和自动驾驶接管行为的评价研究;在道路与交通设计方面,综述了道路几何和标志标线等的设计评价;在车辆驾驶环境方面,综述了不良气象、路侧景观和交通冲突等驾驶环境对驾驶行为的影响;在道路行车事故研究方面,总结了道路行车事故再现和事故影响因素分析等内容。此外,对驾驶模拟技术进行了应用展望,主要包括特殊人群的驾驶行为特性、智能网联汽车系统的测试及验证、混合交通流环境下的行车安全问题。对未来应对驾驶模拟器的有效性评价、不适性以及二次开发等问题进行探讨,以便更好地促进驾驶模拟技术的发展。

     

  • 图  1  驾驶模拟器

    Figure  1.  Driving simulator

    图  2  研究框架

    Figure  2.  Research framework

    表  1  国外主要代表性科研型驾驶模拟器

    Table  1.   Major representative driving simulators abroad

    研发机构 研发时间 自由度 主要特征 应用领域
    德国大众 20世纪70年代初 3 世界第1台真正意义上的驾驶模拟器,可实现侧倾、横摆、俯仰3个方向的运动 车辆系统测试及验证、车辆新技术研发等
    瑞典国家道路和运输研究所 1984年 4 模拟器可实现侧倾、横摆、俯仰和侧向4个方向的运动 车辆的操控、人机界面的测试以及驾驶行为研究等
    德国戴姆勒-奔驰 1985年 6 模拟器由液压驱动,可实现侧倾、横摆、俯仰、横向、纵向和垂直6个方向的运动 车辆产品开发、驾驶行为及车辆反应研究等方面
    日本马自达 1991年 6 采用高性能计算机仿真系统和图形处理硬件系统,可提供非常复杂逼真的驾驶场景 车辆性能测试等方面
    日本汽车研究所 1996年 6 模拟器由液压驱动,可实现侧倾、横摆、俯仰、横向、纵向和垂直6个方向的运动 车辆系统测试及验证等方面
    美国爱荷华大学 2003年 13 模拟器配备8个LED屏幕,可提供360°交通场景,再开发潜力强 道路交通设计、车辆系统的安全性验证以及驾驶行为特性研究等方面
    英国利兹大学 2006年 8 平台内置5个眼睛跟踪仪,250°视景屏幕,8通道的视觉信道以60 Hz频率更新 道路安全设计、驾驶分心、交通安全中的人因理论、自动驾驶等方面的研究
    日本丰田 2008年 12 高4.5 m、直径1.7 m,内部可放置实车,360°球面屏幕可以呈现出逼真的驾驶场景 不良驾驶行为的安全性研究等方面
    德国戴姆勒-奔驰 2010年 7 直径约7.5 m、高约4.5 m,采用电力驱动,但很难实现横、纵2个方向的运动交互 车辆主动安全技术、辅助驾驶技术等方面的研究
    日本FORUM8公司 2014年 8 模拟器可支持与CarSim、TruckSim等仿真软件配套使用 道路安全、车辆开发、驾驶员因素等方面的研究
    德国大众 2015年 6 模拟器具有前进和转向功能,可实现车体的横向、纵向、横摆、俯仰、侧倾和垂直运动 模拟车路的纵向协同交互
    德国Vl-grade公司 & 米兰理工大学 2021年 9 动态驾驶模拟器DiM400采用绳索驱动系统,允许更大的运动范围,驾驶员能在更长的时间内承受更高的加速度,还允许在实际构建道路使用者与基础设施之前验证它们之间的相互作用 车辆动力学、油耗优化、高级驾驶员辅助系统(ADAS)功能验证和自动驾驶等研究
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  中国部分高校代表性科研型驾驶模拟器

    Table  2.   Representative driving simulators in some universities in China

    研发机构 研发时间 自由度 主要特征 应用领域
    吉林大学 1996年 6 具有较高的可扩展性和逼真的“人-车”交互界面,由液压驱动,能够实现“人-硬件”在环试验 道路交通安全评价、车辆安全系统设计、交通法规合理性的检验等方面
    昆明理工大学 1999年 3 KMRTDS具有先进的车辆模型和逼真复杂的视景系统,允许与多台模拟器协同工作,对车辆具有选择性监视功能 道路安全性能验证、驾驶行为特性研究等方面
    武汉理工大学 2004年 3 具有很强的驾驶交互性和真实感、高清晰和高逼真的视景、模块化的设计,能够满足不同用户的需求 驾驶行为特性分析、道路交通安全评价、道路交通事故致因分析、汽车安全辅助驾驶产品的评价、汽车自动驾驶仿真研究以及交通诱导研究等方面
    清华大学 2009年 6 可模拟不同车型、不同路况和多种驾驶环境,能给人带来6D驾驶体验;还可与眼动仪、肌电、脑电等设备联合使用 先进汽车设计技术、汽车智能安全技术、行车安全与事故再现、驾驶行为机理的研究等方面
    同济大学 2011年 8 平面操作空间20 m×5 m,内置5个刷新频率为60 Hz的投影仪,驾驶场景由250°曲面屏提供,电力驱动,代表我国驾驶模拟器发展的顶尖水平 道路交通安全设计、车辆安全技术研究、驾驶行为特性分析等方面
    东南大学 2018年 6 具备眼动轨迹分析、心电检测、脑电信息分析、皮肤电反应检测等驾驶人生理、心理参数检测分析功能 城市交通安全、城市交通设施智能建管、城市交通系统智能控制等研究方面
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-11-26
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